kalam criticism

The Bill Craig version of the Kalam Cosmological Argument goes like this: p1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause. p2. The universe began to exist. c. The universe has a cause. Some have put forward the objection(s) that we’ve never observed anything ‘come into existence’ in the sense of ‘ex nihilo’ (out of nothing). … Continue reading kalam criticism

distinguished Cause

Words are only so good.  What words do we use to distinguish the kind of cause God must be from the kind of causes we see in nature and cosmology, etc.? As long as we have the ability, resources, time, interest and basic assumptions about nature, we will always be able to look ‘further out’… Continue reading distinguished Cause

science & causality

Causality is a scientific question.  We look at the world of nature and uncover mechanisms at work which cause the world to function and appear as it does. Having said this, when it comes to the philosophical distinction between primary and secondary causes, science not only cannot, but need not know whether its subject –… Continue reading science & causality

causal chain

Think of causality as a chain.  (Leaving aside Aristotle’s other varieties of causation [formal, efficient and final] we’ll just focus on material causation alone…) Much of the chain we can see with our eyes… Quite a bit more of the chain has been brought into view with modern technology and scientific methodology… The rest of… Continue reading causal chain


To completely tell the story of something, you have to talk about something other than the thing itself. To completely tell the story of a sub-atomic particle, you have to talk about the atom. To completely tell the story of a living cell, you have to talk about the cellular organism it is a part… Continue reading contingency