The two word response of my gym trainer at the university gym at which I am a chaplain, in response to an evolution-friendly comment by me. :)
Category Archives: science
“All we are is dust in the wind”, said Socrates.
In reading about sin and human nature for my mini-thesis, I’ve dipped into the nature/nurture and determinism/free-will discussions. I tend to think that the biblical view of humans takes both sides of these conversations quite seriously. We are limited by our nature/genetics in what we are capable of, and yet we are capable somehow of transcending our current neuro/bio/physio-logical states.
In other words, the biblical view of humans is that we are continually taken from pretty raw material (the dust of the ground) and formed and freed to be human by the Spirit (the breath of life). Perhaps Socrates would agree.
All is/ought distinctions and naturalistic fallacies aside, whilst monogamy does occur in some non-human species, apparently humans have a evolutionary and biological predisposition of sorts to polygamy.
But is this really newsworthy? Even the most prudish of “just lay there and think of the queen” conservatives would admit off the record to the fact that being married to one person doesn’t remove all attraction to all other potential mating partners. Yet again, science is giving us technical and detailed accounts of what we already knew. We like sex. We like sex a lot. We like a lot of sex. Which is good news for the pornography and prostitution industries, though perhaps not for monogamy.
If both the above science and near-universal human experience is correct, then monogamy necessarily always involves a kind of saying ‘no’ to a desire that is as natural and normative as it gets. There are two interesting points of relevance here for the current global discussion of same-sex marriage.
1) Legal same-sex marriage and legal multi-marriage are logically related. It is hardly ‘scaremongering’ to point out that polygamy is the next step in the current progression, if not one of the next steps. There is no shortage of online pro-polygamy groups which have been arguing for its legality for years (and plenty of challenging of other ‘no-marriage-for-you’ lines un-challenged in the currently proposed legislation). Methinks that those pushing for the law change don’t want to talk for too long on this point, so they play the ‘scaremongering’ (or religious ‘fear’) card as quickly as possible.
2) Saying no to sexual desires may not be so inhumane after all. If indeed the natural tendency toward polygamy is there in the vast majority of humans, then the widespread monogamous habit of routinely dousing of the flames of desire for multiple sex-partners is infinitely more backwards and sexually repressive in scope and number than expecting a relatively small percentage of the population to do the same with (homosexual) desires which are arguably just as natural, though incredibly less common.
But of course I do not think that sexual self-control is repressive or backwards. Neither do I think that sexual expression (or marriage for that matter) is some kind of thing that makes you human – and therefore is a ‘right’. All this goes directly against messages both implicit and explicit in movies, media and advertising whose suggestion is hardly a gentle one: namely that to err is virgin, and to get it on is divine.
And the church doesn’t help much either. Marriage is on such a pedestal that single people feel like unfortunate, illegitimate, inconvenient accessories accompanying we normal married folk. We need to affirm those who are both single and celibate as being just as human as any other.
(I’ve got a week filled with almost a dozen meetings, a sermon to write, a boarder moving in, Tom’s 4th birthday party, and a band practice. And I’ve got comments on this blog I’ve not had time to respond to yet. But this post will be short… ;P )
It’s a very real possibility (or a high probability) that at least some kind of life exists (or has existed – or will exist in the future) other than on earth. We’ve found evidence of liquid water in the history of Mars and that’s just H20, and just within our solar system. So it would seem to be hardly a surprise to find some kind of life, plant or animal – or something else? – in other place.
But how likely is intelligent life?
There’s no logical problem with it of course. S.E.T.I. scans space for signs of intelligence, communication, speech from any ‘others’ out there.
I’m hardly the first to say so, but considering a (conceptual) spectrum-of-intelligence, we ought not assume that we are at the highest end of the spectrum. However, there is an assumption that I think is reasonable. It is the assumption that: if we ever do come to know of life that is higher than us on this spectrum-of-intelligence, it would seem less likely that we would discover it (e.g. the movie Prometheus), but that it would discover us (e.g. War of the Worlds or Transformers).
Other possibilities include that it possibly has already discovered us, but would have reason to make itself known to us. Or possibly they are already trying to make themselves known to us, but our technology or techniques are not suited to pick up on their communication.
As an aside, it is also – at least logically – possible (though we rightly think it unlikely) that more-intelligent-than-us life is hiding out deep in the sea, deep underground, or just behind the sun. :)
So then, given that we know of no known, reputable communication from other physical life forms (get ready for spam in the comments!?), the options seem to be:
a1) communication is not possible between them and us due to insufficiency of technology and techniques.
a2) communication is not possible between them and us due to ‘them’ not even existing.
b) communication is not known by us due to our insufficient technology or techniques.
c) communication is not desired by them.
Formerly, when you did not know God, you were slaves to those who by nature are not gods. But now that you know God—or rather are known by God—how is it that you are turning back to those weak and miserable principles? Do you wish to be enslaved by them all over again? (Galatians 4:8-9)
There is a lovely tension in Christian epistemology between our ‘knowing God’ and being known by God (both of which, to be clear, are about an interpersonal kind of knowledge, not about simply knowing an infinite quantity of ‘facts’ about God or us). One of the central announcements of the NT is that Jesus has revealed God in not only a fresh, unexpected way, but also in a full (and thus final) way. God can at last be known.
But this knowledge of God in the face of Christ does not catapult humans into a state of omniscience. “Who has known the mind of the Lord?”, asks Scripture elsewhere. And in the passage above, Paul suggests that the point is not our knowledge of God, but God’s knowledge of us that matters.
There is continuity and discontinuity here with the knowledge proper to the natural sciences. Continuity in that in both cases, reality often has to surprise us for us to ‘get it’. It’s often not what we expected it to be. Truth has that ring to it. But it also has discontinuity in the obvious sense that nature does not and cannot ‘know us’ as we know one another – let alone as we can be known by God.
My few posts on this blog touching on epistemology are a drop in the ocean of literature on the topic, the majority of which I’ll almost certainly never know about, let alone read. But allow little wee me to suggest that the wisdom of human experience tells us that any proper pursuit of knowledge should be accompanied by all three of the following: answers, questions and tensions. The opposite way of saying this is that as long as we retain our position as finite observers and non-omniscient know-ers, we must not have only answers, only questions or only tensions.
I reckon this is the case for all kinds of knowledge. Scientific knowledge of the natural world has all three. Every answer and natural discovery opens up new questions and fields of natural research. Science both closes and opens gaps in knowledge, so don’t listen to anyone who talks as if we’ve figured out how the entire universe works from top to bottom. Personal knowledge of other persons has them too. Does one every completely know their mate or partner or friend? The more one thinks, speaks and acts as if they do, the worse mate, partner or friend they will be. Even theological knowledge of God, which dares to speak words about the Ultimate (only because of its conviction that the Ultimate has first spoken to us), remains a discipline that has real questions. Don’t listen to any preacher who speaks of God as though they’ve got him easily boxed up and packaged.
When it comes to knowledge and know-ers, sometimes the knowledge claimed says something about that which is known – the melon might actually be a bit browned compared to other melons. But it can also say something (or everything) about the one doing the knowing – the melon might only appear browned because the viewer forgot she was wearing sunglasses. Each type of know-er will have their strengths, but strengths become weaknesses if not balanced by the other kinds of know-ers.
The mistake common to ‘answers’ type (or ‘black and white’) people is to be so intent on finding answers that they pushing away questions or not marrying up one answer with another, so they need the question-asking and tension-finding type people to humble and grow them.
The mistake common to ‘question’ type (or ‘grey’) people is to be so focussed on questioning everything that they ignore the answers and tensions that might be right before their eyes, so they need the answer-giving, and tension-finding types to reign in their advocacy to various devils.
The mistake common to ‘tensions’ type (or ‘both/and’) people, which I count myself to be within, is to be so familiar with finding tension and paradox that they fail to acknowledge times when it just might be either/or, or a different both/and than they currently hold to, so they need the answer-giving and question-asking types to disturb and re-frame the tensions they have grown (possibly too?) comfortable with.
I’m beginning to wonder if so-called ‘methodological naturalism’ ought to be critiqued on purely philosophical grounds (i.e. not as a sneaky pre-apologetic move).
It seems that many people (against the evidence) are under the impression that ‘science’ supports naturalism (All-is-Nature) more than it supports theism (Nature caused and sustained by Supernature). But if our scientific observations are to be truly objective, then we must admit that when we look at any particular thing or set of things (or any particular process or set of processes) in what we call the world, we do not find accompanying labels or name-tags that tell us “Made by YHWH” or “Purely Natural: No God Required”. One must go beyond the evidence (though not leaving it behind!) to make such statements. The theist knows she is doing this, though she will rightfully claim that she has followed reason in doing so. The naturalist, however, seems to not often admit that they ‘go beyond the evidence’ to their Naturalism. Why is this? Do they think the world screams “not made by any God at all”? If so, why?
I (in all my lack of importance for both science and the philosophy of science) propose a new term: methodological indifference!
It’s 12-12-12 today1, and we are nearing the day (21-12-2012) which is heralded by some as something of an apocalypse and an end-of-the-world event.
Among other things, this highlights to me the reality that scientific discovery does not wipe out superstition. People have always been superstitious and will always be. Conversely, people have always denied any inherent purpose or meaning to the world – and they always will.
Science is great and helpful. But I think Dallas Willard is spot on when he says “you can be very sure that nothing fundamental has changed in our knowledge of ultimate reality and the human self since the time of Jesus.” (The Divine Conspiracy, 106; emphasis original)
People wrongly think and speak as though at some point in history we learned some fact that forever sealed off the cosmos from any and all miracles; whereas the ancients, blissfully ignorant of this elusive fact we now know, had no other option.
In addition to ignoring the reality of ancient unbelief and scepticism, this way of thinking also misses the blindingly obvious truth that it’s psychologically and linguistically impossible to think or speak of a ‘super’-natural event if one has no idea of what a natural event is. As Lewis said, when Joseph learned of Mary being pregnant, he was startled – not because he didn’t know how babies were conceived, but precisely because he did.
- or was exactly 2,000 years ago to be pedantic [↑]